Mitsuo Kawato Publication List

English Paper 

Revised: March 21,  2017

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[234] Takagi Y, Sakai Y, Lisi G, Yahata N, Abe Y, Nishida S, Nakamae T, Morimoto J, Kawato M, Narumoto J, Tanaka SC: A neural marker of obsessive-compulsive disorder from whole-brain functional connectivity,, 1703.05428 (2017)  *online publication

[233] Cortese A, Amano K, Koizumi A, Lau H, Kawato M: Decoded fMRI neurofeedback can induce bidirectional confidence changes within single participants,  NeuroImage, 149, 323–337 (2017) *online publication

[232] Takagi A,  Ganesh G, Yoshioka T, Kawato M, Burdet E: Physically interacting individuals estimate the partner's goal to enhance their movements, Nature Human Behavior, 1:0054, doi: 10.1038/s41562-016-0054 (2017)  *online publication

[231] Cortese A, Amano K, Koizumi A, Kawato M, Lau H: Multivoxel neurofeedback selectively modulates confidence without changing perceptual performance, Nature Communications, 7:13669 (2016) *online publication

[230] Shibata K, Sasaki Y, Watanabe T, Kawato M: Response to Comment on “Perceptual Learning Incepted by Decoded fMRI Neurofeedback Without Stimulus Presentation”; —How can a decoded neurofeedback method (DecNef) lead to successfulreinforcement and visual perceptual learning?—, 1612.03270 (2016) *online publication

[229] Koizumi A, Amano K, Cortese A, Shibata K, Yoshida W, Seymour B, Kawato M, Lau H: Fear reduction without fear through reinforcement of neural activity that bypasses conscious exposure,  Nature Human Behavior, 1:0006, doi:10.1038/s41562-016-0006 (2016)   *online publication

[228] Babiˇc J, Oztop E, Kawato M: Human motor adaptation in whole body motion, Scientific Reports, 6(32868) (2016)  *online publication

[227] Shibata K, Watanabe T, Kawato M, Sasaki Y: Differential activation patterns in the same brain region led to opposite emotional states, PLoS Biology, 14(9): e1002546 (2016) *online publication

[226] Sato T, Nambu I, Takeda K, Aihara T, Yamashita O, Isogaya Y, Inoue Y, Otaka Y, Wada Y, Kawato M, Sato M, Osu R: Reduction of global interference of scalp-hemodynamics in functional near-infrared spectroscopy using short distance probes, NeuroImage, 141, 120–132 (2016) *online publication

[225] Amano K, Shibata K, Kawato M, Sasaki Y, Watanabe T: Learning to associate orientation with color in early visual areas by associative decoded fMRI neurofeedback,  Curr Biol, 26(14), 1861–1866 (2016)

[224] Shibata K, Sasaki Y, Kawato M, Watanabe T: Neuroimaging evidence for two types of plasticity in association with visual perceptual learning, Cerebral Cortex, doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhw176 (2016) *online publication

[223] Lang EJ, Apps R, Bengtsson F, Cerminara NL, Zeeuw CID, Ebner TJ, Heck DH, Jaeger D, Jörntell H, Kawato M, Otis TS, Ozyildirim O, Popa LS, Reeves AMB, Schweighofer N, Sugihara I, Xiao J: The roles of the olivocerebellar pathway in motor learning and motor control, The Cerebellum, doi: 10.1007/s12311-016-0787-8 (2016)

[222] Yahata N, Morimoto J, Hashimoto R, Lisi G, Shibata K, Kawakubo Y, Kuwabara H, Kuroda M, Yamada T, Megumi F, Imamizu H, Nanez JE,  Takahashi H, Okamoto Y, Kasai K, Kato N, Sasaki Y, Watanabe T, Kawato M : A small number of abnormal brain connections predicts adult autism spectrum disorder, Nature Communications, 7:11254, doi: 10.1038/ncomms11254 (2016) *online publication

[221] Cortese A,  Amano K,  Koizumi A, Lau H, Kawato M: Decoded fMRI neurofeedback can induce bidirectional behavioral changes within single participants,, 1603.03162 (2016) *online publication 

[220] Shibata K, Watanabe T, Kawato M, Sasaki Y: Differential activation patterns in the same brain region led to opposite emotional states,, 1603.01351 (2016) *online publication

[219] Osu R, Morishige K, Nakanishi J, Miyamoto H, Kawato M: Practice reduces task relevant variance modulation and forms nominal trajectory,  Scientific Reports5(17659), doi: 10.1038/srep17659 (2015)  *online publication

[218] Nambu I, Hagura N, Hirose S, Wada Y, Kawato M, Naito E: Decoding sequential finger movements from preparatory activity in higher-order motor regions: a functional magnetic resonance imaging multi-voxel pattern analysis,  European Journal of Neuroscience, 42, 2851–2859 (2015) *online publication

[217] Hoang H, Yamashita O, Tokuda I, Sato M, Kawato M, Toyama K: Segmental Bayesian estimation of gap-junctional and inhibitory conductance of inferior olive neurons from spike trains with complicated dynamics,  Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, 9(56) (2015) *online publication

[216] Megumi F, Yamashita A, Kawato M, Imamizu H: Functional MRI neurofeedback training on connectivity between two regions induces long-lasting changes in intrinsic functional network, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9(160), doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2015.00160 (2015) *online publication

[215] Morimoto J, Kawato M: Creating the brain and interacting with the brain: an integrated approach to understanding the brain, Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 12(20141250), doi: 10.1098/rsif.2014.1250 (2015) *online publication

[214] Yamashita M, Kawato M, Imamizu H: Predicting learning plateau of working memory from whole-brain intrinsic network connectivity patterns, Scientific Reports, 5(7622), doi: 10.1038/srep07622 (2015) *online publication

[213] Watanabe H, Sakatani T, Suzuki T, Sato M, Nishimura Y, Nambu A, Kawato M, Isa T: Reconstruction of intracortical whisker-evoked local field potential from electrocorticogram using a model trained for spontaneous activity in the rat barrel cortex,  Neuroscience Research, 87, 40-48 (2014)

[212] Morishige K, Yoshioka T, Kawawaki D, Hiroe N, Sato M, Kawato M: Estimation of hyper-parameters for a hierarchical model of combined cortical and extra-brain current sources in the MEG inverse problem,  NeuroImage, 101, 320-336 (2014)

[211] Umeda T, Watanabe H, Sato M, Kawato M, Isa T, Nishimura Y: Decoding of the spike timing of primary afferents during voluntary arm movements in monkeys, Frontiers in Neuroscience, 8(97), 1-14, doi: 10.3389/fnins.2014.00097 (2014)  *online publication

[210] Ganesh G, Takagi A, Osu R, Yoshioka T, Kawato M, Burdet E: Two is better than one: Physical interactions improve motor performance in humans,  Scientific Reports, 4(3824). doi: 10.1038/srep03824 (2014) *online publication

[209] Mistry M, Theodorou E,  Schaal S, Kawato M: Optimal control of reaching includes kinematic constraints, Journal of Neurophysiology, 110, 1-11 (2013) *online publication

[208] Schweighofer N, Lang EJ, Kawato M: Role of the olivo-cerebellar complex in motor learning and control, Frontiers in Neural Circuits, 7(94), 1-9 (2013) *online publication

[207] Callan D, Terzibas C, Cassel D, Callan A, Kawato M, Sato M : Differential activation of brain regions involved with error-feedback and imitation based motor simulation when observing self and an expert’s actions in pilots and non-pilots on a complex glider landing task, NeuroImage, 72, 55-68 (2013)

[206] Onizuka M, Hoang H, Kawato M, Tokuda I, Schweighofer N, Katori Y, Aihara K, Lang EJ, Toyama K : Solution to the inverse problem of estimating gap-junctional and inhibitory conductance in inferior olive neurons from the spike trains by network model simulation, Neural Networks, 47, 51-63  (2013)

[205] Tokuda I, Hoang H, Schweighofer N, Kawato M: Adaptive coupling of inferior olive neurons in cerebellar learning, Neural Networks, 47, 42-50  (2013)

[204] Oztop E, Kawato M, Arbib MA: Mirror neurons: functions, mechanisms and models, Neuroscience Letters, 540, 43-55 (2013)

[203] Umeda T, Seki K, Sato M, Nishimura Y, Kawato M, Isa T: Population coding of forelimb joint kinematics by peripheral afferents in monkeys, PLoS ONE, 7(10): e47749 (2012) *online publication

[202] Watanabe H, Sato M, Suzuki T, Nambu A, Nishimura Y, Kawato M, Isa T: Reconstruction of movement-related intracortical activity from micro-electrocorticogram array signals in monkey primary motor cortex, Journal of Neural Engineering, 9, 036006 (16pp), doi:10.1088/1741-2560/9/3/036006 (2012) 

[201] Callan D, Gamez M, Cassel D, Terzibas C, Callan A, Kawato M, Sato M: Dynamic visuomotor transformation involved with remote flying of a plane utilizes the 'mirror neuron' system, PLoS ONE, 7(4): e33873. doi:10.1371 (2012) *online publication

[200] Fukushima M, Yamashita O, Kanemura A, Ishii S, Kawato M, Sato M: A state-space modeling approach for localization of focal current sources from MEG, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering59(6)1561-1571 (2012)

[199] Sugimoto N, Morimoto J, Hyon S, Kawato M: The eMOSAIC model for humanoid robot control, Neural Networks, 29-30, 8-19 (2012)

[198] Shibata K, Sasaki Y, Kawato M, Watanabe T: Monocular deprivation boosts long-term visual plasticity, Current Biology, 22(9), R291-R292 (2012)

[197] Haruno M, Ganesh G, Burdet E, KawatoM: Differential neural correlates of reciprocal activation and co-contraction control in dorsal and ventral premotor cortices, Journal of  Neurophysiology, 107, 126-133 (2012)        

[196] Sugimoto N, Haruno M, Doya K, Kawato M: MOSAIC for multiple-reward environments, Neural Computation, 24, 577-606 (2012)

[195] Imamizu H, Kawato M: Cerebellar internal models: implications for dexterous use of tools,  The Cerebellum, 11, 325-335 (2012)

[194] Osu R, Ota K, Fujiwara T, Otaka Y, Kawato M, Liu M: Quantifying the quality of hand movement in stroke patients through three-dimensional curvature, Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, 8:62 doi:10.1186/1743-0003-8-62 (2011)

[193] Aihara T,  Takeda Y, Takeda K, Yasuda W, Sato T, Otaka Y, Hanakawa T, Honda M, Liu M, Kawato M, Sato M, Osu R: Cortical current source estimation from electroencephalography in combination with near-infrared spectroscopy as a hierarchical prior, NeuroImage, 59,  4006-4021 (2011)

[192] Shibata K, Watanabe T, Sasaki Y, Kawato M: Perceptual learning incepted by decoded fMRI neurofeedback without stimulus presentation, Science, 334(6061), 1413-1415 (2011)

[191] Hirata M, Matsushita K, Suzuki T, Yoshida T, Sato F, Morris S, Yanagisawa T, Goto T, Kawato M, Yoshimine T:  A fully-implantable wireless system for human brain-machine interfaces using brain surface electrodes: w-herbs, IEICE Transactions on Electronics, 94(B), 2448-2453 (2011)

[190] Kadiallah A, Liaw G, Kawato M, Franklin D, Burdet E: Impedance control is selectively tuned to multiple directions of movement, Journal of Neurophysiology, 106, 2737-2748 (2011)

[189] Chaminade T, Kawato M, Frith C: Individuals' and groups' intentions in the medial prefrontal cortex, NeuroReport, 22(16), 814-818 (2011)

[188] Kawato M, Kuroda S, Schweighofer N: Cerebellar supervised learning revisited: biophysical modeling and degrees-of-freedom control, Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 21(5), 791-800 (2011)

[187] Toda A, Imamizu H, Kawato M, Sato M: Reconstruction of two-dimensional movement trajectories from selected magnetoencephalography cortical currents by combined sparse Bayesian methods, NeuroImage, 54, 892-905  (2011)

[186] Ogasawara H, Kawato M: The protein kinase Mzeta network as a bistable switch to store neuronal memory,  BMC Systems Biology, 4, 181, published in preliminary form (2010)

[185] Mitrovic D, Klanke S, Osu R, Kawato M, Vijayakumar S: A computational model of limb impedance control based on principles of internal model uncertainty, PLoS ONE, 5, e13601 doi 10.1371 (2010)

[184] Yamagishi N, Anderson S, Kawato M: The observant mind: self-awareness of attentional status, Proceedings of the Royal Society, London B 277, 3421-3426 (2010)

[183] Ganesh G, Haruno M, Kawato M, Burdet E: Motor memory and local minimization of error and effort, not global optimization,  determine motor behavior, Journal of Neurophysiology104, 382-390 (2010)

[182] Lemmin T, Ganesh G, Gassert R, Burdet E,  Kawato M,  Haruno M: Model based attenuation of movement artifacts in fMRI, Journal of Neuroscience  Methods,192, 58-69 (2010)

[181] Tokuda I, Han C, Aihara K, Kawato M, Schweighofer N:Role of resonance in cerebellar learning, Neural Networks, 23, 836-842 (2010)

[180] Callan D, Callan A, Gamez M, Sato M, Kawato M: Premotor cortex mediates perceptual performance, NeuroImage51(2), 844-58 (2010) 

[179] Katori Y, Lang EJ, Onizuka M, Kawato M, Aihara K: Quantitative modeling of the spatio-temporal dynamics of inferior olive neurons with a simple conductance-based model.  International Journal of  Bifurcation  and Chaos20(3), 583-603 (2010)

[178] Tee KP,  Franklin DW, Kawato M,  Milner TE, Burdet E: Concurrent adaptation of force and impedance in the redundant muscle system.  Biological Cybernetics, 102:31-44 (2010)

[177] Higuchi S, Chaminade T, Imamizu H, Kawato M: Shared neural correlates for language and tool-use in Broca's area.  NeuroReport, 20, 1376-1381(2009)

[176] Shibata K, Yamagishi N, Ishii S,  Kawato M: Boosting perceptual learning by fake feedback. Vision Research, 49(21), 2574-85 (2009)

[175] Nishina S, Kawato M, Watanabe T: Perceptual learning of global pattern motion occurs on the basis of local motion.  Journal of Vision, 9, 1-6 (2009)

[174] Osu R, Morishige K, Miyamoto H, Kawato M: Feedforward impedance control efficiently reduce motor variability.  Neuroscience Research, 65(1), 6-10 (2009)

[173] Nambu I, Osu R, Sato M, Ando S, Kawato M, Naito E: Single-trial reconstruction of finger-pinch forces from human motor-cortical activations measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS).  NeuroImage, 47, 628-637 (2009)

[172] Imamizu H,  Kawato M: Brain mechanisms for predictive control by switching internal models: implications for higher- order cognitive functions. Psychological Research, 73,  527-544 (2009)

[171] Haruno M, Kawato M: Activity in the superior temporal sulcus highlights learning competence in an interaction game. Journal of Neuroscience, 29, 4542-4547 (2009)

[170] Fujiwara Y, Yamashita O, Kawawaki D, Doya K, Kawato M, Toyama K, Sato M: A hierarchical bayesian method to resolve an inverse problem of MEG contaminated with eye movement artifacts. NeuroImage, 45,  393-409 (2009)

[169] Ogasawara H, Kawato M: Bistable switches for synaptic plasticity. Science Signaling, 2(56), pe7. (2009)

[168] Franklin D,  Burdet E, Peng T, Osu R, Meng C, Milner T, Kawato M: CNS learns stable accurate and efficient movements using a simple algorithm. Journal of Neuroscience, 28(44), 11165-11173 (2008)

[167] Imamizu H, Kawato M: Neural correlates of predictive and postdictive switching mechanisms for internal models. Journal of Neuroscience, 28(42), 10751-10765 (2008) 

[166] Ting JA, D'Souza A, Yamamoto K, Yoshioka T, Hoffman D, Kakei S, Sergio L, Kalaska J, Kawato M, Strick P, Schaal S: Variational bayesian least squares: an application to Brain-Machine Interface data. Neural Networks, 21(8), 1112-1131 (2008)

[165] Ganesh G, Burdet E, Haruno M, Kawato M: Sparse linear regression for reconstructing muscle activity from human cortical fMRI. NeuroImage, 42(4), 1463-1472 (2008)

[164] Yoshioka T, Toyama K, Kawato M, Yamashita O, Nishina S, Yamagishi N, Sato M: Evaluation of hierarchical bayesian method through retinotopic signal reconstruction from MEG measurement. NeuroImage, 42, 1397-1413 (2008)

[163] Ogasawara H, Doi T, Kawato M: Systems biology perspectives on cerebellar long-term depression, NeuroSignals, 16, 300-317 (2008)

[162] Shibata K, Yamagishi N, Goda N, Yoshioka T, Yamashita O, Sato M, Kawato M: The effects of feature attention on pre-stimulus cortical activity in the human visual system. Cerebral Cortex, 18, 1664-1675 (2008)

[161] Oztop E, Babic J, Hale J, Cheng G, Kawato M: From biologically realistic imitation to robot teaching via human motor learning. Neural Information Processing, 214-221 (2008)

[160] Kawato M: From "Understanding the brain by creating  the brain" towards manipulative neuroscience.  Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B,  363, 2201-2214 (2008)

[159] Kawato M: Brain controlled robots. HFSP Journal, 2(3), 136-142 (2008)

[158] Chaminade T, Oztop E, Cheng G, Kawato M: From self-observation to imitation: visuomotor association on a robotic hand. Brain Research Bulletin, 75, 775-784 (2008)

[157] Yamagishi N, Callan DE, Anderson SJ, Kawato M: Attentional changes in pre-stimulus oscillatory activity within the early visual cortex are predictive of human visual performance. Brain Research, 1197, 115-122 (2008)

[156] Franklin DW, SO Udell, Burdet E, Kawato M: Visual feedback is not necessary for the learning of novel dynamics. PLoS ONE,  19; 2(12), e1336 (2007)

[155] Callan DE, Kawato M, Parsons L, Turner R: Speech and song: the role of the cerebellum. Cerebellum, 2007 Feb 8, 1-7 (2007)

[154] Nishina S, Yazdanbakhsh A, Watanabe T, Kawato M: Depth propagation on illusory surface. Journal of Optical Society of America A, 27(4), 905-910 (2007)

[153] Nishina S, Seitz A, Kawato M, Watanabe T: Effect of spatial distance to the task stimulus on task-irrelevant perceptual learning of static gabors. Journal of Vision, 13(2), 1-10 (2007)

[152] Oztop E, Imamizu H, Cheng G, Kawato M: A computational model of anterior intraparietal (AIP) neurons. Neurocomputing, 69, 1354-1361 (2007) .

[151] Imamizu H, Sugimoto N, Osu R, Tsutsui K, Sugiyama K, Wada Y, Kawato M: Explicit contextual information selectively contributes to predictive switching of internal models. Experimental Brain Research, 181, 395-408 (2007)

[150] Franklin D, Liaw G, Milner T, Osu R, Burdet E, Kawato M: End-point stiffness of the arm is directionally tuned to instability in the environment. Journal of Neuroscience, 27(29), 7705-7716 (2007)

[149] Tanaka K, Khiroug L, Santamaria F, Doi T, Ogasawara H, Ellis-Davies G, Kawato M, Augustine GJ: Ca2+ requirements for cerebellar long-term synaptic depression: role for a postsynaptic leaky integrator. Neuron, 54, 787-800 (2007)

[148] Chaminade T, Hodgins J, Kawato M: Anthropomorphism influences perception of computer-animated characters' actions. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 2(3), 206-216 (2007)

[147] Higuchi S, Imamizu H, Kawato M: Cerebellar activity evoked by common tool-use execution and imagery tasks: an fMRI study. Cortex, 3, 350-358 (2007) .

[146] Imamizu H, Higuchi S, Toda A, Kawato M: Reorganization of brain activity for multiple internal models after short but intensive training. Cortex, 3, 338-349 (2007).

[145] Milner TE, Franklin D, Imamizu H, Kawato M: Central control of grasp: manipulation of objects with simple and complex dynamics, NeuroImage, 36, 388-395 (2007)

[144] Yamamoto K, Kawato M, Kotoaska S, Kitazawa S: Encoding of movement dynamics by Purkinje cell simple spike activity during fast arm movements under resistive and assistive force fields. Journal of Neurophysiology, 97, 1588-1599 (2007)

[143] Kawato M, Samejima K: Efficient reinforcement learning: computational theories, neuroscience and robotics. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 17, 205-212 (2007)

[142] Ganesh G. Franklin D, Gassert R, Imamizu H, Kawato M: Accurate real-time feedback of surface EMG during fMRI, Journal of Neurophysiology,  97 912-920 (2007)

[141] Ogasawara H, Doi T, Doya K, Kawato M: Nitric oxide regulates input specificity of long-term depression and context dependence of cerebellar learning. PLoS Computational Biology3 e179 (2007)

[140] Samejima K, Katagiri K, Doya K, Kawato M: Sybolization and imitation learning of motion sequence using competitive modules. Electronics and Communication in Japan, Part III, 89(9), 42-53 (2006)

[139] Bursztyn LCD, Ganesh G, Imamizu H, Kawato M, Flanagan R: Neural correlates of internal model loading. Current Biology,  16 2440-2445 (2006)

[138] Haruno M, Kawato M: Heterarchical reinforcement-learning model for integration of multiple cortico-striatal loops; fMRI examination in stimulus-action-reward association learning. Neural Networks19, 1242–1254  (2006) .

[137] Oztop E, Kawato M, Arbib M: Mirror neurons and imitation: a computationally guided review. Neural Networks, 19, 254–271  (2006) .

[136] Kawawaki D, Shibata T, Goda N, Doya K, Kawato M: Anterior and superior lateral occipito-temporal cortex responsible for target motion prediction during overt and covert visual pursuit.  Neuroscience Research,  54, 112–123  (2006) .

[135] Haruno M, Kawato M: Different neural correlates of reward expectation and reward expectation error in the putamen and caudate nucleus during stimulus-action-reward association learning. Journal of Neurophysiology, 95, 948-959 (2006).

[134] Burdet E, Tee KP, Mareels I, Milner TE, Chew CM, Franklin DW, Osu R, Kawato M: Stability and motor adaptation in human arm movements. Biological Cybernetics, 94, 20-32 (2006) .

[133] Milner T, Franklin DW, Imamizu H, Kawato M: Central representation of dynamics when manipulating handheld objects. Journal of Neurophysiology, 95, 893-901 (2006).

[132] Hu Y, Osu R, Okada M, Goodale MA, Kawato M: A model of the coupling between grip aperture and hand transport during human prehension. Experimental Brain Research, 167, 301-304 (2005) .

[131] Yamagishi N, Goda N, Callan DE, Anderson SJ, Kawato M: Attentional shifts towards an expected visual target alter the level of alpha-band oscillatory activity in the human calcarine cortex. Cognitive Brain Research, 25, 799-809 (2005) .

[130] Seitz A, Yamagishi N, Werner B, Goda N, Kawato M, Watanabe T:Task-specific disruption of perceptual learning Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS), 102, 14895-14900 (2005) .

[129] Kaneko Y, Nakano E, Osu R, Wada Y, Kawato M: Trajectory formation based on the minimum commanded torque change model using the euler–poisson equation. Systems and Computers in Japan, 36, 92-103 (2005)

[128] Shibata T, Tabata T, Schaal S, and Kawato M: A model of smooth pursuit in primates based on learning the target dynamics. Neural Networks, 18, 213-224 (2005).

[127] Doi T, Kuroda S, Michikawa T, Kawato M: Insoitol, 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate-dependent Ca2+ threshold dynamics detect spike timing in cerebellar Purkinje Cells. Journal of Neuroscience, 25, 950-961 (2005).

[126] Oztop E, Wolpert DM, Kawato M: Mental state inference using visual control parameters. Cognitive Brain Research, 22, 129-151 (2005).

[125] Schultz J, Imamizu H, Kawato M, Frith CD: Activation of the human superior temporal gyrus during observation of goal attribution by intentional objects. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16, 1695-1705 (2004).

[124] Sato M, Yoshioka T, Kajiwara S, Toyama K, Goda N, Doya K, Kawato M: Hierarchical bayesian estimation for MEG inverse problem. NeuroImage, 23, 806-826 (2004).

[123] Miyamoto H, Nakano E, Wolpert DM, Kawato M: TOPS (Task Optimization in the Presence of Signal-dependent noise) model.  Systems and Computers in Japan, 35, 48-58  (2004). (Translated from Denshi Tsushin Gakkai Ronbunshi, J85-D-II,  940-949)

[122] Caithness G, Osu R, Bays P, Chase H, Klassen J, Kawato M, Wolpert DM, Flanagan RJ: Failure to consolidate the consolidation theory of learning for sensorimotor adaptation tasks. Journal of Neuroscience. 24, 8662-8671 (2004).

[121] Franklin D, So U, Kawato M, Milner TE: Impedance control balances stability with metabolically costly muscle activation. Journal of Neurophysiology 92, 3097-3105 (2004).

[120] Schaal S, Sternad D, Osu R, Kawato M: Rhythmic arm movement is not discrete. Nature Neuroscience, 7, 1137-1144 (2004). (c) 2004 Nature Publishing Group.
(News and Views   Miall RC, Ivry R: Moving to a different beat.
Nature Neuroscience, 7, 1025-1026 (2004).)

[119] Osu R, Kamimura N, Iwasaki H, Nakano E, Harris CM, Wada Y, Kawato M: Optimal impedance control for task achievement in the presence of signal-dependent noise. Journal of Neurophysiology, 92, 1199-1215 (2004).

[118] Nakanishi J, Morimoto J, Endo G, Cheng G, Schaal S, Kawato M: Learning from demonstration and adaptation of biped locomotion. Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 47, 79-91 (2004).

[117] Wada Y, Kawato M: A via-point time optimization algorithm for complex sequential trajectory formation. Neural Networks, 17, 353-364 (2004).

[116] Miyamoto H, Morimoto J, Doya K, Kawato M: Reinforcement learning with via-point representation. Neural Networks, 17, 299-305 (2004).

[115] Schweighofer N, Doya K, H. Fukai, Chiron JV, Furukawa T, Kawato. M: Chaos may enhance information transmission in the inferior olive. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA., 101, 4655-4660 (2004).

[114] Taguchi S, Tabata H, Shibata T, Kawato M: Transformation from population codes to firing rate codes by learning: Neural representation of smooth pursuit eye movements. Systems and Computers in Japan, 35, 79-88  (2004).

[113] Haruno M, Kuroda T, Doya K, Toyama K, Kimura M, Samejima K, Imamizu H, Kawato M: A neural correlate of reward-based behavioral learning in caudate nucleus: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of a stochastic decision task. Journal of Neuroscience, 24, 1660-1665 (2004).

[112] Nishina S, Kawato M: A computational model of spatio-temporal dynamics in depth filling-in. Neural Networks, 17, 159-163 (2004).

[111] Imamizu H, Kuroda T, Yoshioka T, Kawato M: Functional magnetic resonance imaging examination of two modular architectures for switching multiple internal models. Journal of Neuroscience, 24, 1173-1181(2004).

[110] Osu R, Hirai S, Yoshioka T, Kawato M: Random presentation enables subjects to adapt to two opposing forces on the hand. Nature Neuroscience, 7, 111-112 (2004). (c) Nature Publishing Group

[109] Okada M, Nishina S, Kawato M: The neural computation of the aperture problem: an iterative process. NeuroReport, 14, 1767-1771 (2003).

[108] Osu R, Burdet E, Franklin DW, Milner TE, Kawato M: Different mechanisms involved in adaptation to stable and unstable dynamics. Journal of Neurophysiology, 90, 3255-3269 (2003).

[107] Franklin DW, Osu R, Burdet E, Kawato M, Milner TE: Adaptation to stable and unstable dynamics achieved by combined impedance control and inverse dynamics model. Journal of Neurophysiology, 90, 3270-3282 (2003).

[106] Yamagishi N, Callan DE, Goda N, Anderson SJ, Yoshida Y, Kawato M: Attentional modulation of oscillatory activity in human visual cortex. NeuroImage, 20, 98-113 (2003).

[105] Nishina S, Okada M, Kawato M: Spatio-temporal dynamics of depth propagation on uniform region. Vision Research, 43, 2493-2503 (2003).

[104] Samejima K, Doya K, Kawato M: Inter-module credit assignment in modular reinforcement learning. Neural Networks, 16, 985-994 (2003).

[103] Yamanaka K, Wada Y, Kawato M: Quantitative exmaninations for human arm tracjectory planning in three-dimensional space. Systems and Computers in Japan, 34, 43-54 (2003)

[102] Wada Y, Kawabata Y, Kotosaka S, Yamamoto S, Kitazawa S, Kawato M: Acquisition and contextual switching of multiple internal models for different viscous force fields. Neurroscience Research, 46, 319-331 (2003).

[101] Kawato M, Kuroda T, Imamizu H, Nakano E, Miyauchi S, Yoshioka T: Internal forward models in the cerebellum: fMRI study on grip force and load force coupling. Progress in Brain Research, 142, 171-188 (2003).

[100] Franklin DW, Burdet E, Osu R, Kawato M, Milner TE: Functional significance of stiffness in adaptation of multijoint arm movements to stable and unstable dynamics. Experimental Brain Research, 151, 145-157 (2003).

[99] Wolpert DM, Doya K, Kawato M: A unifying computational framework for motor control and social interaction. Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society: Biological Sciences, 358, 593-602 (2003).

[98] Imamizu H, Kuroda T, Miyauchi S, Yoshioka T, Kawato M: Modular organization of internal models of tools in the human cerebellum. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA., 100, 5461-5466 (2003).

[97] Yamamoto K, Kobayashi Y, Takemura A, Kawano K, Kawato M: Cerebellar plasticity and the ocular following response. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 978, 439-454 (2002)

[96] Osu R, Franklin DW, Kato H, Gomi H, Domen K, Yoshioka T, Kawato M: Short- and long-term changes in joint co-contraction associated with motor learning as revealed from surface EMG. Journal of Neurophysiology, 88, 991-1004 (2002)

[95] Servos P, Osu R, Santi A, Kawato M: The neural substrates of biological motion perception: an fMRI study. Cerebral Cortex, 12, 772-782 (2002)

[94] Doya K, Samejima K, Katagiri K, Kawato M: Multiple model-based reinforcement learning. Neural Computation, 14, 1347-1369 (2002)

[93] Tabata H, Yamamoto K, Kawato M: Computational study on monkey VOR adaptation and smooth pursuit based on the parallel control-pathway theory. Journal of Neurophysiology, 87, 2176-2189 (2002). (c) The American Physiological Society.

[92] Yamamoto K, Kobayashi Y, Takemura A, Kawano K, Kawato M: Computational studies on acquisition and adaptation of ocular following responses based on cerebellar synaptic plasticity. Journal of Neurophysiology, 87, 1554-1571 (2002). (c) The American Physiological Society.

[91] Yoshida N, Domen K, Koike Y, Kawato M: A method for estimating torque-vector directions of shoulder muscles using surface EMGs. Biological Cybernetics, 86 167-177 (2002). (c) Springer-Verlag 2002.

[90] Nakano E,  Flanagan J, Imamizu H, Osu R, Yoshioka T, Kawato M: Composition and decomposition learning of reaching movements under altered environments: An examination of the multiplicity of internal models. Systems and Computers in Japan, 33, 80-94 (2002)

[89] Burdet E, Osu R, Franklin D, Milner T, Kawato M: The central nervous system stabilizes unstable dynamics by learning optimal impedance. Nature, 414 446-449 (2001). (c) Macmillan Magazines Ltd.

[88]Takemura A, Inoue Y, Gomi H, Kawato M, Kawano K: Change in neuronal firing patterns in the process of motor command generation for the ocular following response. Journal of Neurophysiology, 86 1750-1763 (2001). (c) The American Physiological Society.

[87] Haruno M, Wolpert DM, Kawato M: MOSAIC model for sensorimotor learning and control. Neural Computation, 13 2201-2220 (2001).

[86] Doya K, Kimura H, Kawato M: Neural mechanisms of learning and control. IEEE Control Systems Magazine, 21 42-54 (2001).

[85] Kuroda S, Schweighofer N, Kawato M: Exploration of signal transduction pathways in cerebellar long-term depression by kinetic simulation. Journal of Neuroscience, 21, 5693-5702 (2001). (c) 2001 Society for Neuroscience.

[84] Wada Y, Kaneko Y, Nakano E, Osu R, Kawato M: Quantitative examinations for multi joint arm trajectory planning -- using a robust calculation algorithm of the minimum commanded torque change trajectory --. Neural Networks, 14, 381-393 (2001). (c) Elsevier.

[83] Kuroda S, Yamamoto K, Miyamoto H, Doya K, Kawato M: Statistical characteristics of climbing fiber spikes necessary for efficient cerebellar learning. Biological Cybernetics, 84, 183-192 (2001). (c) Springer-Verlag. The original publication is available on LINK

[82] Yamamoto K, Kobayashi Y, Takemura A, Kawano K, Kawato M: A mathematical analysis of the characteristics of the system connecting the cerebellar ventral paraflocculus and extraoculomotor nucleus of alert monkeys during upward ocular following responses. Neuroscience Research, 38, 425-435 (2000). (c) Elsevier.

[81] Omata T, Kitama T, Mizukosh A, Ueno T, Kawato M, Sato Y: Purkinje cell activity in the middle zone of the cerebellar flocculus during optokinetic and vestibular eye movement in cats. The Japanese Journal of Physiology, 50, 357-370 (2000).

[80] Burdet E, Osu R, Franklin D, Milner TE, Kawato M: A method for measuring endpoint stiffness during multi-joint arm movements. Journal of Biomechanics, 33, 1705-1709 (2000). (c) Elsevier Science Ltd.

[79] Atkeson CG, Hale J, Pollick F, Riley M, Kotosaka S, Schaal S, Shibata T, Tevatia G, Vijayakumar S, Ude A, Kawato M: Using humanoid robots to study human behavior. IEEE Intelligent Systems: Special Issue on Humanoid Robotics, 15, 46-56 (2000). (c) IEEE.

[78] Mizukoshi A, Kitama T, Omata T, Ueno T, Kawato M, Sato U: Motor dynamics encoding in the rostral zone of the cat cerebellar flocculus during vertical optokinetic eye movements. Experimental Brain Research, 132, 260-268 (2000). (c) Springer-Verlag. The original publication is available on LINK

[77] Imamizu H, Miyauchi S, Tamada T, Sasaki Y, Takino R, Puetz B, Yoshioka T, Kawato M: Human cerebellar activity reflecting an acquired internal model of a new tool. Nature, 403, 192-195 (2000). (c) Macmillan Magazines Ltd.

[76] Kawato M: Internal models for motor control and trajectory planning. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 9, 718-727 (1999). (c) Elsevier Science Ltd.

[75] Watanabe H, Pollick F, Koenderink JJ, Kawato M: Using motor tasks to quantitatively judge 3-D surface curvatures. Perception & Psychophysics, 61, 1116-1139 (1999).

[74] Flanagan RJ, Nakano E, Imamizu H, Osu R, Yoshioka T, Kawato M: Composition and decomposition of internal models in motor learning under altered kinematic and dynamic environments. Journal of Neuroscience, 19, RC34 1-5 (1999). (c) Society for Neuroscience.

[73] Schweighofer N, Doya K, Kawato M: Electrophysiological propersties of infereor olive neurons: A compartmental model. Journal of Neurophysiology, 82, 804-817 (1999). (c) The American Physiological Society.

[72] Nakano E, Imamizu H, Osu R, Uno Y, Gomi H, Yoshioka T, Kawato M: Quantitative examinations of internal representations for arm trajectory planning: Minimum commanded torque change model. Journal of Neurophysiology, 81, 2140-2155 (1999). (c) The American Physiological Society.

[71] Tamada T, Miyauchi S, Imamizu H, Yoshioka T, Kawato M: Cerebro-cerebellar functional connectivity revealed by the laterality index in tool-use learning. NeuroReport, 10, 325-331 (1999). (c) Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

[70] Wolpert D, Kawato M: Multiple paired forward and inverse models for motor control. Neural Networks, 11, 1317-1329 (1998). (c) Elsevier Science Ltd.

[69] Miyamoto H, Kawato M: A tennis serve and upswing learning robot based on bi-directional theory. Neural Networks, 11, 1331-1344 (1998). (c) Elsevier Science Ltd.

[68] Wolpert D, Miall C, Kawato M: Internal models in the cerebellum. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 2, 338-347 (1998). (c) Elsevier Science Ltd.

[67] Gomi H, Shidara M. Takemura A, Inoue Y, Kawano K, Kawato M: Temporal firing patterns of Purkinje cells in the cerebellar ventral paraflocculus during ocular following responses in Monkeys. I.simple spikes. Journal of Neurophysiology, 80, 818-831 (1998). (c) The American Physiological Society.

[66] Kobayashi Y, Kawano K, Takemura A, Inoue Y, Kitama T, Gomi H, Kawato M: Temporal firing patterns of Purkinje cells in the cerebellar ventral paraflocculus during ocular following responses in Monkeys. II.complex spikes. Journal of Neurophysiology, 80, 832-848 (1998). (c) The American Physiological Society.

[65] Imamizu H, Uno Y, Kawato M: Adaptive internal model of intrinsic kinematics involved in learning an aiming task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 24, 812-829 (1998). (c) The American Psychological Association. Inc.

[64] Schweighofer N, Arbib MA, Kawato M: Role of the cerebellum in reaching movements in humans. I. Distributed inverse dynamics control. European Journal of Neuroscience, 10, 86-94 (1998).

[63] Schweighofer N, Spoelstra J, Arbib MA, Kawato M: Role of the cerebellum in reaching movements in humans. II. A neural model of the intermediate cerebellum. European Journal of Neuroscience, 10, 95-105 (1998).

[62] Yamamoto K, Kobayashi Y, Takemura A, Kawano K, Kawato M: A mathematical model that reproduces vertical ocular following responses from visual stimuli by reproducing the simple spike firing frequency of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. Neuroscience Research, 29, 161-169 (1997).

[61] Koenderink JJ, Kappers A, Pollick F, Kawato M: Correspondence in pictorial space. Perception & Psychophysics, 59, 813-827 (1997).

[60] Osu R, Uno Y, Koike Y, Kawato M: Possible explanations for trajectory curvature in multijoint arm movements. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 23, 890-913 (1997).

[59] Gomi H, Kawato M: Human arm stiffness and equilibrium-point trajectory during multi-joint movement. Biological Cybernetics, 76, 163-171 (1997).

[58] Kawano K, Shidara M, Takemura A, Inoue Y, Gomi H, Kawato M: Inverse-dynamics representation of eye movements by cerebellar Purkinje cell activity during short-latency ocular-following responses. New York Academy of Sciences, 781, 314-321  (1996).

[57] Kawato M: The common inverse-dynamics motor-command coordinates for complex and simple spikes. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 19, 462-464 (1996).

[56] Miyamoto H, Schaal S, Gandolfo F, Gomi H, Koike Y, Osu R, Nakano E, Wada Y, Kawato M: A Kendama learning robot based on dynamic optimization theory. Neural Networks, 9, 1281-1302 (1996).

[55] Gomi H, Kawato M: Equilibrium-point control hypothesis examined by measured arm-stiffness during multijoint movement. Science, 272, 117-120 (1996).

[54] Dornay M, Uno Y, Kawato M, Suzuki R: Minimum muscle-tension change trajectories predicted by using a 17-muscle model of the monkey's arm. Journal of Motor Behavior, 28, 83-100 (1996).

[53] Pollick FE, Watanabe H, Kawato M: Perception of local orientation from shaded images. Perception and Psychophysics, 58, 762-780 (1996).

[52] Wada Y, Kawato M: A theory for cursive handwriting based on the minimization principle. Biological Cybernetics, 73, 3-13 (1995).

[51] Wada Y, Koike Y, EV Bateson, Kawato M: A computational theory for movement pattern recognition based on optimal movement pattern generation. Biological Cybernetics, 73, 15-25 (1995).

[50] Koike Y, Kawato M: Estimation of dynamic joint torques and trajectory formation from surface electromyography signals using a neural network model. Biological Cybernetics, 73, 291-300 (1995).

[49] Imamizu H, Uno Y, Kawato M: Internal representations of motor apparatus: Implications from generalization in visuomotor learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 21, 1174-1198 (1995).

[48] Uno Y, Fukumura N, Suzuki R, Kawato M: A computational model for recognizing objects and planning hand shapes in grasping movements. Neural Networks, 8, 839-851 (1995).

[47] Hayakawa H, Wada Y, Kawato M: Solution of nonlinear vision problem based on forward and approximated inverse optics models. Electronics and Communications in Japan, 78, 22-33 (1995).

[46] Koike Y, Kawato M: Estimation of arm posture in 3D-space from surface EMG signals using a neural network model. IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems, E77-D, 368-375 (1994).

[45] Pollick FE, Nishida S, Koike Y, Kawato M: Perceived motion in structure from motion. Pointing responses to the axis of rotation. Perception and Psychophysics, 56, 91-109. (1994).

[44] Hayakawa H, Nishida S, Wada Y, Kawato M: A computational model for shape estimation by integration of shading and edge information. Neural Networks, 7, 1193-1209 (1994).

[43] Wada Y, Kawato M: Arm movement trajectory formation by a neural network incorporating models of forward and inverse dynamics. Systems and Computers in Japan, 24, 64-77 (1993).

[42] Kawato M, Gomi H: Computational models of cerebellar motor learning. Trends in Neurosciences, 16, 177-178 (1993).

[41] Gomi H, Kawato M: Recognition of manipulated objects by motor learning with modular architecture networks. Neural Networks, 6, 485-497 (1993).

[40] Kawato M: Computational studies of coordinated arm movements. Biomedical Research, 14, 55-57 (1993).

[39] Shidara M, Kawano K, Gomi H, Kawato M: Inverse-dynamics model eye movement control by Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. Nature, 365, 50-52 (1993).

[38] Wada Y, Kawato M: A neural network model for arm trajectory formation using forward and inverse dynamics models. Neural Networks, 6, 919-932 (1993).

[37] Gomi H, Kawato M: Neural network control for a closed-loop system using feedback-error-learning. Neural Networks, 6, 933-946 (1993).

[36] Hirayama M, Kawato M, Jordan MI: The cascade neural network model and a speed-accuracy trade-off of arm movement. Journal of Motor Behavior, 25, 162-174 (1993).

[35] Katayama M, Kawato M: Virtual trajectory and stiffness ellipse during multijoint arm movement predicted by neural inverse models. Biological Cybernetics, 69, 353-362 (1993).

[34] Kawato M, Hayakawa H, Inui T: A forward-inverse optics model of reciprocal connections between visual cortical areas. Network:Computation in Neural systems, 4, 415-422 (1993).

[33] Hirayama M, Bateson EV, Kawato M: Physiologically-based speech synthesis using neural networks. IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems, E76-A, 1898-1910 (1993).

[32] Hongo S, Kawato M, Inui T, Miyake S: Contour extraction by local parallel and stochastic algorithm which has energy learning faculty. Systems and Computers in Japan, 23, 26-35 (1992).

[31] Wada Y, Kawato M: A new information criterion combined with cross-validation method to estimate generalization capability. Systems and Computers in Japan, 23, 92-104 (1992).

[30] Kawato M, Gomi H: The cerebellum and VOR/OKR learning models. Trends in Neurosciences, 15, 445-453 (1992).

[29] Kawato M, Gomi H: A computational model of four regions of the cerebellum based on feedback-error-learning. Biological Cybernetics, 68, 95-103 (1992).

[28] Gomi H, Kawato M: Adaptive feedback control models of the vestibulocerebellum and spinocerebellum. Biological Cybernetics, 68, 105-114 (1992).

[27] Katayama M, Kawato M: A parallel-hierarchical neural network model for motor control of musculo-skeletal system. Systems and Computers in Japan, 22, 95-105 (1991).

[26] Irie B, Kawato M: Acquisition of internal representation by multilayered perceptrons. Electronics and Communications in Japan, 74, 112-118 (1991).

[25] Kawato M, Maeda Y, Uno Y, Suzuki R: Trajectory formation of arm movement by cascade neural network model based on minimum torque-change criterion. Biological Cybernetics, 62, 275-288 (1990).

[24] Kawato M: Adaptation and learning in control of voluntary movement by the central nervous system. Advanced Robotics 3, 229-249 (1989).

[23] Uno Y, Kawato M, Suzuki R: Formation and control of optimal trajectory in human multijoint arm movement - minimum torque-change model-. Biological Cybernetics, 61, 89-101 (1989).

[22] Kawato M, Uno Y, Isobe M, Suzuki R: Hierarchical neural network model for voluntary movement with application to robotics. IEEE Control Systems Magazine, 8, 8-16 (1988).

[21] Miyamoto H, Kawato M, Setoyama T, Suzuki R: Feedback-error-learning neural network for trajectory control of a robotic manipulator. Neural Networks, 1, 251-265 (1988).

[20] Kawato M, Isobe M, Maeda Y, Suzuki R: Coordinates transformation and learning control for visually-guided voluntary movement with iteration: a Newton-like method in a function space. Biological Cybernetics, 59, 161-177 (1988).

[19] Urushibara S, Kawato M, Nakazawa K, Suzuki R: Simulation analysis of conduction of excitation in the atrioventricular node. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 126, 275-288 (1987).

[18] Kawato M, Furukawa K, Suzuki R: A hierarchical neural-network model for control and learning of voluntary movement. Biological Cybernetics, 57, 169-185 (1987). 

[17] Murakami F, Etoh M, Kawato M, Oda Y, Tsukahara N: Synaptic currents at interpositorubral and corticorubral excitatory synapses measured by a new iterative single electrode voltage-clamp method. Neuroscience Research, 3, 590-605 (1986).

[16] Kawato M, Yamanaka A, Urushibara S, Nagata O, Irisawa H, Suzuki R: Simulation analysis of excitation conduction in the heart: Propagation of excitation in different tissues. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 120, 389-409 (1986).

[15] Yamanaka A, Okazaki K, Urushibara S, Kawato M, Suzuki R: Reconstruction of electrocardiogram using ionic current models for heart muscles. Japanese Heart Journal, 27, 185-193 (1986).

[14] Kawato M, Etoh M, Oda Y, Tsukahara N: A new algorithm for voltage clamp by iteration: A learning control of a nonlinear neuronal system. Biological Cybernetics, 53, 57-66 (1985).

[13] Kawato M, Tsukahara N: Electrical properties of dendritic spines with bulbous end terminals. Biophysical Journal, 46, 155-166 (1984).

[12] Kawato M, Hamaguchi T, Murakami F, Tsukahara N: Quantitative analysis of electrical properties of dendritic spines. Biological Cybernetics, 50, 447-454 (1984).

[11] Kawato M: Cable properties of a neuron model with non-uniform membrane resistivity. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 111, 149-169 (1984).

[10] Kawato M, Tsukahara N: Theoretical study on electrical properties of dendritic spines. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 103, 507-522 (1983).

[9] Kawato M, Fujita K, Suzuki R, Winfree AT: A three-oscillator model of the human circadian system controlling the core temperature rhythm and the sleep-wake cycle. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 98, 369-392 (1982).

[8] Kawato M: Transient and steady state phase response curves of limit cycle oscillators. Journal of Mathematical Biology, 12, 13-30 (1981).

[7] Kawato M, Suzuki R: Analysis of entrainment of circadian oscillators by skeleton photoperiods using phase transition curves. Biological Cybernetics, 40, 139-149 (1981).

[6] Kawato M, Suzuki R: Two coupled neural oscillators as a model of the circadian pacemaker. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 86, 547-575 (1980).

[5] Yamanishi J, Kawato M, Suzuki R: Two coupled oscillators as a model for the coordinated finger tapping by both hands. Biological Cybernetics, 37, 219-225 (1980).

[4] Yamanishi J, Kawato M, Suzuki R: Studies on human finger tapping neural networks by phase transition curves. Biological Cybernetics, 33, 199-208 (1979).

[3] Kawato M, Sokabe M, Suzuki R: Synergism and antagonism of neurons caused by an electrical synapse. Biological Cybernetics, 34, 81-89 (1979).

[2] Inui T, Kawato M, Suzuki R: The mechanism of mental scanning in foveal vision. Biological Cybernetics, 30, 147-155 (1978).

[1] Kawato M, Suzuki R: Biological oscillators can be stopped -Topological study of a phase response curve. Biological Cybernetics, 30, 241-248 (1978).

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